Malik Shah
Leader at the battle of Manzikert (1071). He captured Jerusalem from the Fatimids and was the head of the Seljuk state. It was under his rule that the Seljuk Empire reached its peak in 1071. After his death in 1092, there was a strong sense of Muslim disunity as they could not decide on a ruler.
Kilij Arslan

He was the Seljuk Turkish Sultan of Nicaea. He destroyed the People's Crusade and assumed that the Christians following them would be just as easy to defeat. He fled from the Battle of Dorylaeum after he saw that their attempts were futile. After the crusaders took Nicaea his wife and child were captured. He was fighting against fellow Muslims at the time.


Semi-independent Turkish military governor. He led an army of c.35,000 to Antioch. He contacted Shams-al-daulah (who controlled the citadel in Antioch) who passed the control over to Kerbogha giving him a critical advantage. He was defeated at the siege of Antioch as the crusaders believed they had found the Holy Lance and this had an electrifying effect on the crusaders ability to fight. He was surprised at how large the Christian army was and found himself facing a motivated, unified Christian army so large that Kerbogha's strategy was ineffective. He had to retreat after being deserted by some of his Muslim 'allies' and returned to Mosul a broken man.

Ridwan of Aleppo

Semi-independent Turkish military governor. Led an army of c.12,000 from Aleppo to Antioch and oversaw the cities of Ma’arat. He was the nephew of Malik Shah and the brother of Duqaq. He married Yaghi-Siyan's daughter which sealed an alliance. But Yaghi-siyan later regretted his actions as he realised Ridwan coveted his kingdom and Yaghi-siyan feared for his life. He died in 1113.

Duqaq of Damascus

Semi-independent Turkish military governor. He led an army of c.10,000 from Damascus to Antioch. He and Ridwan shared such mutual hatred that not even a common threat to both of them could unite them. He later joined forces with Kerbogha to attack the crusaders who had captured Antioch in 1098, but Duqaq’s line deserted and Kerbogha was defeated. He died in 1104 of an illness.


He was the ruler of Antioch, he decided to expel the Christians living in the city when he heard of the crusaders. He was a Turkish slave of Malik Shah. He 1098 he turned to Kerbogha for more reinforcements, but during a battle he fell of his horse and his guards were unable to take their injured governor with them. He was later found by a crusader who cut off his head and sent it to Bohemond. More on Muslim Disunity