Crusades Glossary

Abbasids – Sunni Muslims ruling from Baghdad. Sunni Muslims believed the first three caliphs after Mohammed were true ones.

Audita Tremendi - Papal Bull calling for the Third Crusade.

Asia Minor – the name given to modern day Turkey.

Atabeg/Atabak – ‘prince-father’, a Muslim ruler or high official.

Bohemond of Taranto - a Norman leader of the First Crusade. Became ruler of Antioch during the Crusade.

Byzantine Empire – the eastern part of the old Roman Empire. The Byzantine Emperor was also Head of the Greek Orthodox Church.

Caliph – successor to Mohammed, a Muslim ruler (political and religious).

Emirate – a Muslim state.

Eugenius III - Pope who called the Second Crusade.

Fatimids – Shi’ite Muslims ruling from Cairo. Shi’ite Muslims believed only Ali the fourth caliph after Mohammed who was married to Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter was a true caliph. Only descendants of Fatima had the right to be caliphs.

Hattin- Battle in 1187 in which the Muslims under Saladin were successful. Most of the knights of Outremer were killed and any surviving members of the military orders were destroyed afterwards, Reynald of Chatillon was killed by Saladin himself and Guy of Lusignan was taken prisoner. Saladin's army went on to take Jerusalem helped by the severe lack of Crusader military manpower. This, in turn, led to the call for the Third Crusade.

Innocent III - Pope who called for the Third and the Fourth Crusades.

Philip Augustus- King of France who took part in the Third Crusade. He clashed with Richard I over candidates for the position of King of Jerusalem. He returned home during the Crusade and claimed back some lands from Richard in France. Their ongoing strugle prevented Richard from returning to Outremer after the Third Crusade.

Seljuk (Seljuq) Turks – nomadic tribe from central Asia who moved into Asia Minor. Excellent horsemen and warriors, they conquered most of the Muslim world in the East.

Tancred - Norman, nephew of Bohemond of Taranto. He took part in the First Crusade.

Umayyads – Dynasty of Sunni Muslims in Spain. They had also held Damascus and parts of the Near East.

Urban II - Pope who preached the First Crusade at Clermont.